How does the color of Chameleons change? How and why?

Chameleon is one of the types of crawling animals that belong to the family of lizards and is considered to be the family of the largest size in this family and is classified among the cold-blooded, one of the most important characteristics of chameleons is its ability to change the color of its skin so that it takes colors that are similar or match the color of the environment in which it is located Chameleons, chameleons feed mainly on insects, including mantis and flies, but they can feed on some other types of small reptiles. They also eat rodents and small birds and anything of their size that allows entry into the chameleon’s mouth. Chameleons eat large amounts of food if they can Eat equal amounts of food Its weight as well as it can endure hunger for up to three days and drink fresh water that is not stagnant and can eat the plant when there is a lack of fluids inside its body.

Chameleon shape

Chameleon is very similar to the shape of a dinosaur, but with a much smaller size and has a long and wide tongue from the front. There is a sticky substance on it and it hunted its prey to feed on it, where it starts at a high speed to catch prey, the chameleon has two circular eyes in which they have some protrusion from the head and its eyes for them The ability to rotate up to 360 degrees and steeply, the legs are found under the body and not on the sides and there is with each foot five fingers connected to the legs like hooks and we find the five fingers divided in the form of two fingers together on one side and the remaining three on the other side of the man which allows it to be able to Climbing the walls and trees, but its tail is folded Where equal to the length of her body for, you find chameleons live in the cracks and are found in various parts of the world.

Chameleon Breed

Chameleon mating season is throughout the spring to summer, when males struggle over females and males display their beautiful colors. After mating operations, chameleons begin to carry eggs, and the duration ranges from 3 to 6 weeks, as the period varies from one type of chameleon to another. , And the female can vaccinate her eggs through her sperm stores without needing a male or a new marriage, after the egg incubation period ends, the chameleon searches for a place of safety and digs a hole with a depth of 10 to 30 cm By type, she wraps her body around the front of the hole and lays eggs in The hole covers it with dirt, leaves it, and leaves, where the eggs hatch after a period ranging between 4 and 12 months depending on the type, and the young ones begin to go out to face the world and find some species that feed, meaning that the eggs hatch in the womb of the mother and give birth to the babies after that.

How does the chameleon change its colours ?

Chameleon possesses a different advantage from most if not all creatures and is its ability to change the color of its skin to suit the environment that surrounds it, making it simulate that environment, but it should be noted that only an adult chameleon can change the color of its skin and this change gives three benefits represented in:

  • Chameleons protect themselves against natural enemies, as they cannot distinguish them when seen.
  • Assists her in setting up traps and swooping in her prey without hinting at her.
  • In this way, he can attract females during the mating season.

The reason behind changing the chameleon is the conditions you go through in terms of feeling relaxed, afraid or angry, and there are also temperatures in terms of hot weather and cold weather.
But the question here is how or what is the mechanism of changing the chameleon to its color, which is due to the layers of the chameleon skin, where it consists of three layers represented in:

  • The lower layer or the dark melanin layer, which does not allow light to pass through it.
  • The middle layer, which consists of a transparent crystal material and when exposed to light, reflects a blue color.
  • The upper layer, which consists of crystal cells, as well as a group of basic color pigments.

Based on the state of the chameleon, it sends messages that work to shrink or extend the color cells of the skin, and the scientists have interpreted the colors of the chameleon as follows:

  • Dark colors appear with anger, strong and direct sunlight.
  • Yellow spots appear with fear.
  • Green color appears with relaxation.
  • The blue color comes with a deep sleep condition.
  • Yellow comes with tension and fear.
  • The light yellow sandy color with yellow spots comes in a dark condition.

With new research, a new theory has emerged that explains the reason for changing the color of the chameleon skin, which is due to the distance that exists between the middle and upper layers of the chameleon’s skin, where the method of reflecting light changes. In the case of relaxation, the two layers are close, which leads to the reflection of short light waves, i.e. blue and Its graduations, but with tension, the distance between the two layers increases, resulting in a reversal of longer light waves such as green.